Sunday, May 24, 2020

Basic Info, History, Geography and Climate of Spain

Spain is a country located in southwestern Europe on the Iberian Peninsula to the south of France and Andorra and to the east of Portugal. It has coastlines on the Bay of Biscay (a part of the  Atlantic Ocean) and the  Mediterranean Sea. Spains capital and largest city is Madrid, and the country is known for its long history, unique culture, strong economy, and very high living standards. Fast Facts: Spain Official Name: Kingdom of SpainCapital: MadridPopulation: 49,331,076 (2018)Official Languages: Spanish nationwide; Catalan, Galician, Basque, Aranese regionallyCurrency: Euro (EUR)Form of Government: Parliamentary constitutional monarchyClimate: Temperate; clear, hot summers in interior, more moderate and cloudy along coast; cloudy, cold winters in interior, partly cloudy and cool along coastTotal Area: 195,124 square miles (505,370 square kilometers)Highest Point: Pico de Teide (Tenerife) on Canary Islands at 12,198 feet (3,718 meters)  Lowest Point: Atlantic Ocean at 0 feet (0 meters) History of Spain The area of present-day Spain and the Iberian Peninsula has been inhabited for thousands of years and some of the oldest archeological sites in Europe are located in Spain. In the ninth century BCE, the Phoenicians, Greeks, Carthaginians, and Celts all entered the region but by the second century BCE, the Romans had settled there. Roman settlement in Spain lasted until the seventh century but many of their settlements were taken over by the Visigoths, who arrived in the fifth century. In 711, the North African Moors entered Spain and pushed the Visigoths to the north. The Moors remained in the area until 1492 despite several attempts to push them out. Present-day Spain was then unified by 1512, according to the U.S. Department of State. By the 16th century, Spain was the most powerful country in Europe because of wealth obtained from its exploration of North and South America. By the latter part of the century, however, it had been in several wars and its power declined. In the early 1800s, it was occupied by France and was involved in several wars, including the Spanish-American War (1898), throughout the 19th century. In addition, many of Spains overseas colonies revolted and gained their independence at this time. These problems led to a period of dictatorial rule in the country from 1923 to 1931. This time ended with the establishment of the Second Republic in 1931. Tensions and instability continued in Spain and in July 1936, the Spanish Civil War began. The civil war ended in 1939 and General Francisco Franco took over Spain. By the beginning of World War II, Spain was officially neutral but it supported Axis power policies; because of this, however, it was isolated by the Allies following the war. In 1953, Spain signed the Mutual Defense Assistance Agreement with the United States and joined the United Nations in 1955. These international partnerships eventually allowed Spains economy to begin growing because it had been closed off from much of Europe and the world prior to that time. By the 1960s and 1970s, Spain had developed a modern economy and in the late 1970s, it began to transition to a more democratic government. Government of Spain Today, Spain is governed as a parliamentary monarchy with an executive branch made up of a chief of state (King Juan Carlos I) and a head of government (the president). Spain also has a bicameral legislative branch made up of the General Courts (made up of the Senate) and the Congress of Deputies. Spains judicial branch is composed of the Supreme Court, also called the Tribunal Supremo. The country is divided into 17 autonomous communities for local administration. Economics and Land Use in Spain Spain has a strong economy that is considered mixed capitalism. It is the 12th largest economy in the world and the country is known for its high standard of living and quality of life. The major industries of Spain are textiles and apparel, food and beverages, metals and metal manufactures, chemicals, shipbuilding, automobiles, machine tools, clay and refractory products, footwear, pharmaceuticals, and medical equipment. Agriculture is also important in many areas of Spain and the main products produced from that industry are grain, vegetables, olives, wine grapes, sugar beets, citrus, beef, pork, poultry, dairy products, and fish. Tourism and the related service sector is also a major part of Spains economy. Geography and Climate of Spain Today, most of Spains area is located in southwestern Europe on the mainland of the country that is south of France and the Pyrenees Mountains and east of Portugal. However, it also has territory in Morocco, the cities of Ceuta and Melilla, islands off the coast of Morocco, as well as the Canary Islands in the Atlantic and the Balearic Islands in the Mediterranean Sea. All of this land area makes Spain the second largest country in Europe behind France. Most of the topography of Spain consists of flat plains that are surrounded by rugged, undeveloped hills. The northern part of the country, however, is dominated by the Pyrenees Mountains. The highest point in Spain is located in the Canary Islands on Pico de Teide at 12,198 feet (3,718 meters) above sea level. The climate of Spain is temperate with hot summers and cold winters inland and cloudy, cool summers and cool winters along the coast. Madrid, located inland in the center of Spain, has an average January low temperature of 37 degrees (3ËšC) and a July average high of 88 degrees (31ËšC). Sources Central Intelligence Agency.  CIA - The World Factbook - Spain: History, Geography, Government, and Culture- States Department of State. Spain.

Monday, May 18, 2020

Disproportionate Incarceration of African Americans Essay

Disproportionate Incarceration of African Americans The disproportionate numbers of African Americans in the prison system is a very serious issue, which is not usually discussed in its totality. However, it is quite important to address the matter because it ultimately will have an effect on African Americans as a whole. Of the many tribulations that plague Americans today, the increase in the amount of African American men and women in prisons is unbelievable. It would be naà ¯ve to say that the increase is due to the fact that more African Americans are committing crimes now than before. When in actuality it has very prevalent connections to a systematic plan to incarcerate a race of people by creating harsh drug laws to†¦show more content†¦Today, the opposite is true with 35% of the prison population made up of whites. Specialists have speculated that by the end of the year 2000, roughly one million African American adults will be behind bars. That will constitute for almost one in every 14 black men being in jail . And as of December 31, 1999 there were 1,366,721 African American men and women under federal and state jurisdiction. This implies that there has been a 3.4% increase since December 1,1998. The face of crime to white America is now that of a black man says David Bositis, Center for Political and Economic Studies, senior political analyst. While incarceration statistics have skyrocketed, crime rates have increased much more slowly. Politicians sought out political points by enforcing tough on crime laws. By doing this the politicians increase public panic by portraying the urban underclass as young black males. The Prison Industrial Complex The Prison Industrial Complex can be described as a contract or lease from a private corporation that allows them to contract convict labor. The government argues that they are merely converting public tax money when in reality it has only provided profit for private corporations. It serves two purposes. The first isShow MoreRelatedThe Disproportionate Incarceration Of African American Males Essay1872 Words   |  8 PagesThe Disproportionate Incarceration of African American Males The United States currently has the highest incarcerated population in the world with 2.2 million adults incarcerated in 2014 (Kaeble, Glaze, Tsoutis, Minton, 2016). African American males represent a disproportionate amount of the incarcerated population, which is defined by those confined in either prison or jail (Crutchfield Weeks, 2015). Although, African-Americans account for roughly 13% of the United States population, theyRead MoreAfrican American Incarceration And The Advancement Of Colored People1163 Words   |  5 PagesToday, in America there is a disproportionate amount of Black people incarcerated. There are discrepancies in everything from the education they receive to the jobs that are available to them. This growing trend needs to be addressed and changed permanently, otherwise already superfluous statistics will continue to increase. The National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (n.d.) declared that â€Å"One in six black men had been incarcera ted as of 2001. If current trends continue, one inRead MoreThe Juvenile Justice System Is Not Reflective Of Their National Population1612 Words   |  7 Pagesheld at juvenile facilities all across the United States (Sickmund Puzzanchera, 2014). Of that population, Latino and African American youth represent the majority of those in confinement. This is a problem because the overrepresentation of minorities within the juvenile justice system is not reflective of their national population percentages. Nationally, Latino and African American youth only comprise 38% of the total juvenile population combined, while Caucasian youth alone represent the majorityRead MoreThe Controversy Over The Drug War958 Words   |  4 PagesIn recent decades, there have been increasing trends of incarceration, specifically in relation to the use and possession of illegal drugs. In 2010, there were 1.6 million people arrested for drug related offenses, which is approximately 1 person every 19 seconds. The majority of the arrests, however, are for possession of small amounts and are minor offenses (Criminal Justice Fact Sheet, NAACP). The controversy over the drug war is the element of concentration in cities, consistently in underprivilegedRead MoreRacial Discrimination And The Criminal Justice System1512 Words   |  7 Pagesevidence validate the issue of racism to be undeniable. Equality and justice are out of reach with the racism that takes place in our criminal justice system and our country. Racial discrimination is prevalent amongst the African American culture in issues regarding drug use, and incarceration which creates unfair inequality for this race. I will use peer reviewed articles to verify the racial disparity in the criminal justice system. The first article I am going to focus on, Foreword: Addressing the RealRead MoreThe Sentencing Of African Americans1626 Words   |  7 Pages African Americans now constitute nearly 1 million of the total 2.3 million incarcerated; that is 60% of 30% of the African American population. African Americas are incarcerated at nearly six times the rate of whites. â€Å"Between 6.6% and 7.5% of all black males ages 25 to 39 were imprisoned in 2011, which were the highest imprisonment rates among the measured sex, race, Hispanic origin, and age groups. (Carson, E. Ann, and Sabol, William J. 2011.) Stated on â€Å" The SentencingRead MoreThe Prison System Of America1052 Words   |  5 Pagesthat time, an explicit â€Å"War on Drugs† has dominated the political imagination of the United States. When President Ronald Reagan signed the Anti-Drug Abuse Act in 1986, he effectively criminalized drug addiction; this led to the mass and disproportionate incarceration of primarily non-violent drug offenders from disadvantaged minority populations (Cummings, 2012). As a result, politicians such as Nixon, Barry Goldwater, and Nelson Rockefeller advocated for harsh drug laws and severe criminal sanctionsRead MoreThe New Jim Crow And The Article On The Myth Os Mass Incarceration853 Words   |  4 Pagesmyth os mass incarceration, I was surprised to see how different they really were. The book is suggesting that mass incarceration is in fact the new Jim Crow, while the very title of the article infers that mass incarceration is a â€Å"myth† and is something that is not actually happening. That being said, I believe there are many ways in which Michelle Alexander would respond to this article in order to defend the topic of mass incarceration, and the fact that it is African-Americans in particularRead MoreRace, Incarceration, And American Values Essay1141 Words   |  5 Pages A Summary of Race, Incarceration, and American Values The book Race, Incarceration, and American Values describes mass incarceration as essentially a legalized form of genocide that is slowly destroying the fiber of African American families and communities. It provides explanations for the origin of mass incarceration as well as the reasons for the disproportionate level of African Americans in the prison system. Glenn Loury, along with Pamela Karian, Tommie Shelby, and Loic Wacquant discuss howRead MoreThe Equal Protection Of The United States991 Words   |  4 Pagesthe laws. This law should protect everyone regardless of race or ethnicity. This very much explains why in every single state of the U.S, poverty rates are higher for the African Americans than Whites. According to research done by the Kaiser Family Foundation in all 50 states, the poverty rates are higher for African Americans than whites. Blacks are also much more likely to be sent to jail for drug possession, even though they are not more likely to use drugs. According to the Constitutional

Wednesday, May 13, 2020

Blind Persistence Essay - 724 Words

The play Othello by William Shakespeare is a portrayal of jealousy and deception. The two characters Cassio and Roderigo play a vital role throughout the play in portraying Shakespeare’s theme of how ignorance, whether it be words of advice from others or just indications, can lead to one’s downfall. Cassio and Roderigo both play an essential role in showing how being persistent—ignoring everything that could be signs of warning—to attain what we want is not always the correct approach. The first similarity that links Cassio and Roderigo is their attraction towards Desdemona. Cassio’s relationship with Desdemona is really just on a platonic level. However, because of the misinterpretation of Cassio’s introduction with Desdemona, one can†¦show more content†¦By doing so, he shows that he is determined to regain Othello’s trust and eventually his position back. In Roderigo’s case, he is determined to acquire Desdemona for himself. Even after being denied by Barbantio, â€Å"In honest plainness thou hast heard me say / My daughter is not for thee† (I.i.98), Roderigo still manages to pursue after Desdemona. Roderigo’s persistence is one of the major causes that are responsible for the tragedy in the play. Both Cassio and Roderigo did exactly opposite of what the Duke advised in Othello, I.iii.199-209; They allowed their desires to take over them, not realizing that it would’ve been best if they had not done so. T he notable difference between Cassio and Roderigo is the outcome of their quest and what happens to them. Cassio realizes that it is more trouble than it’s worth asking Desdemona to help him obtain his position back. Thus, Cassio tells Desdemona to disregard what he had asked of her. Instead of mourning over the situation, he accepts it because he understands that â€Å"To mourn a mischief that is past and gone / Is the next way to draw new mischief on† (I.iii.204). In doing so, Cassio shows that he is willing to accept his position and will try and make the best out of what he has got. Roderigo also realizes that asking Iago to help him attain Desdemona is a lost cause. Roderigo shows that his patience is draining when he tells Iago â€Å"if she will return me my jewels, I will give over my suit and repent my unlawfulShow MoreRelatedAnalysis Of Raymond Carver s Cathedral2364 Words   |  10 PagesPastor Bonhoeffer once said, â€Å"Judging others makes us blind, whe reas love is illuminating. By judging other’s, we blind ourselves to our own evil and to the grace which others are just as entitled to as we are.† The way we treat people reflects on ourselves. The way the world judges and condemns each other is very true and an everyday reality for most. The same could be said about people who are limited by one or more of their six senses and are judged by the majority of the population who are notRead MoreA Man Who Had No Eyes1165 Words   |  5 PagesA Man Who Had No Eyes: Markwardt Character Sketch In the short story â€Å"A Man Who Had No Eyes† by MacKinlay Kantor, one of the main characters is Markwardt, a blind beggar who comes up to another man to ask for money. Markwardt is the type of person who is so self-indulgent; he will do just about anything to get what he wants which in this case is money. Instead of looking at the brighter side of things, he looks at everything negatively and uses mendacity and psychological manipulation through theRead MoreTragic Flaws Of Oedipus Rex950 Words   |  4 Pagesbecause he intended his downfall. His tragic flaws, pride, persistence, and ignorance lead to his fate. Sight is a very important motif in this play. Oedipus is unable to see his fate clearly because he is blinded by his tragic flaws. Sophocles really drilled the motif of sight vs. blindness into the fabric of this play. The first sight of this motif is at the beginning of the play when the prophet Teiresias graces the stage. Teiresias is blind, but he can see Oedipus s past, present, and future andRead MoreOedipus Rex : A Tragic Hero945 Words   |  4 Pagesbecause he intended his downfall. His tragic flaws, pride, persistence, and ignorance lead to his fate. Sight is a very important motif in this play. Oedipus is unable to see his fate clearly because he is blinded by his tragic flaws. Sophocles really drilled the motif of sight vs. blindness into the fabric of this play. The first sight of this motif is at the beginning of the play when the prophet Teiresias graces the stage. Teiresias is blind, but he can see Oedipus s past, present, and future andRead MoreRacial Inequality797 Words   |  4 PagesMarc Morial stated. Here are some questions that need to be considered when addressing racial inequality. What are the main forms of contemporary racial inequality? How have these patterns of inequality developed over time? How can we explain the persistence of racial inequality despite the decline in factors that supposedly accounted for it in the past? There has been significant work in regards to these questions but there is not enough evidence for the reasons behind the racial gap. Racial inequalityRead MoreOedipus Rex : A Tragic Hero882 Words   |  4 Pagesend. Oedipus’s tragic flaws are pride, persistence, and ignorance. They lead to his fate and help him fulfil his destiny. Sight is a very symbolic in this play. Oedipus is unable to see his fate clearly because he is blinded by his tragic flaws. Sophocles really drilled the motif of sight vs. blindness into the fabric of this play. The first sight of this motif is at the beginning of the play when the prophet Teiresias graces the stage. Teiresias is blind, but he can see Oedipus s life very clearlyRead MoreHelen Keller: A True Hero Essay1200 Words   |  5 Pagesthat led her to be deaf and blind. A true hero is someone who is dedicated to help others in need no matter the circumstances/struggle he or she faces, never gives up, and is an inspiration for others. Helen Keller is a hero because she overcame the struggle of being deaf and blind by never giving up, dedicated her life to help others, and made change in the world despite her disabilities. Helen Keller is a hero because she conquered the struggle of being deaf and blind by never giving up. HelenRead MoreAnalysis Of The Book Long Division Essay1272 Words   |  6 PagesColor-Blind Racism and the Persistence of Racial Inequality in the United States written by Eduardo Bonilla-Silva, specifically chapter 3 The Style of Color Blindness: How to Talk Nasty about Minorities without Sounding Racist, Bonilla-Silva goes into great detail, with excerpts of multiple interviews, about the way white people go intro great length to prove they are not racists by contradicting themselves by actually sounding racist and implying racism. He goes on by proving color-blind racismRead MoreEssay on Kate Chopins The Story of an Hour911 Words   |  4 PagesMallard then goes on to welcoming this new feeling she would never have to clean up after him never going to worry about if he’s okay or not, never going to only think about him. She then says â€Å"There would be no powerful w ill bending hers in that blind persistence with which men and women believe they have a right to impose a private will upon a fellow-creature.† why because she was free she can become her own person who she really wants to be in life having no one to worry about only about her even thoughRead MoreAn Analysis of Cathedral822 Words   |  4 Pagescharacters are the aforementioned wife of the narrator, and Robert the blind man. The initial tone of the story is set in the opening line of the story, Carver (1983) writes â€Å"This blind man, an old friend of my wife’s, he was on the way to spend the night.† There is an obvious disdain in the tone of the narrator. The narrator goes on to say about Robert â€Å"I wasn’t enthusiastic about his visit. He was no one I knew. And his being blind bothered me† (Carver, R, 1983). According to Clugston (2010) â€Å"A

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Alcoholics Anonymous Is A Fellowship Of Men And Women

â€Å"Alcoholics Anonymous is a fellowship of men and women who share their experience, strength and hope with each other that they may solve their common problem and help others to recover from alcoholism.† AA is managed and run by recovering addicts. This provides an organic nature to the healing process for those struggling with alcoholism. Additionally, their structure promotes a level of openness and honesty which most have never seen. In my time with the Mountain View AA group I witnessed honesty, support, accountability, and celebration. These four elements combined create what I believe to be a powerful tool in the fight against addiction. I attended the Mountain View AA meeting at their 5:30 pm time slot. We were joined by around 25 other members who have struggled or are still struggling with their addiction to alcohol and other drugs. The beginning of the meeting was spent celebrating Linda, a member who has been sober for 33 years. After this, many members shared their own road to sobriety and offered encouragement for those who are just getting sober. What stood out to me right out of the was the honesty expressed by the members present. Two members, Mike Diane, shared the struggles they’ve been experiencing while just 30 days sober. Mike even shared how he had come to Mountain View a couple of times a day because he felt â€Å"comfortable† here. May (1988) expresses the loneliness and hopelessness people who struggle with addictions can experience. May (1988) talksShow MoreRelatedHistory Of Organization : Alcoholics Anonymous ( A.a )1691 Words   |  7 PagesHistory of Organization Alcoholics Anonymous (A.A.) was founded in 1935 by Bill Wilson and Dr. Bob Smith in Akron, Ohio, and is a spiritual based organization with the sole purpose â€Å"to stay sober and help other alcoholics achieve sobriety† threw fellowship. Alcoholic Anonymous (A.A.) foundation is built on a 12 step program that involves taking 12 step that will guarantee your sobriety (according to A.A.) because you start the 12 steps but you never end, it is designed for you to consistently workRead MoreAlcoholism As A Family Disease1368 Words   |  6 Pagesdisease all members are affected, thus, those who are concerned the most about the alcoholic are affected the most (Al-Anon Family Group, 2008). For this reason, Al-Anon offers peer support in an environment of hope, strength and offers experience in managing an alcoholic loved one (Al-Anon Family Group, 2008). This paper presents a brief history of the Al-Anon self-help recovery program for anyone affected by an alcoholic or alcohol abus er, how the meetings are organized, and the experiential observationRead MoreAlcoholics Anonymous ( A.a )1623 Words   |  7 PagesFounded in 1935, Alcoholics Anonymous (A.A.) is a 12-step spiritual program for those who have a desire to stop drinking. It is open to all those who seek help all over the world. Thousands of alcoholics have become victorious because of the spiritual foundation it was built on. In 1939 the first book, Alcoholics Anonymous, was published. It held all of the struggles and hope filled stories of some of the first alcoholics that joined the group. This book, later called â€Å"The Big Book†, would lay downRead MoreAlcoholics Anonymous : An International Mutual Aid Fellowship1574 Words   |  7 PagesAlcoholics Anonymous is an international mutual aid fellowship founded in 1935 by Bill Wilson and Dr. Bob Smith in Akron, Ohio. AA states that its primary purpose is to help alcoholics to stay sober and help other alcoholics achieve sobriety. With othe r early members Bill Wilson and Bob Smith developed AA s Twelve Step program of spiritual and character development. AA s initial Twelve Traditions were introduced in 1946 to help the fellowship be stable and unified while disengaged from outsideRead MoreFamilies Find Hope in Their Communities Essay2046 Words   |  9 Pagesstockbroker, and Dr. Bob, An Akron Ohio Surgeon, a fellowship group evolved that eventually became known as Alcoholics Anonymous (Alcoholics Anonymous World Services, Inc., 2012). Through awareness communities began to embrace Alcoholics Anonymous and Al-Anon which provides families with the support needed to achieve hopefulness instead of hopelessness. Alcoholics Anonymous celebrate the founding date as being June 10, 1935 (Branscum Sharma, 2010). The fellowship transpired when Bill W. and Dr. Bob, gainedRead MoreAlanon Family Groups976 Words   |  4 PagesBrenda Smith Dr. Donna Goodwin Speech Communication I 29 February 2012 Al-Anon Family Groups There are 12 million alcoholics in the United States. That means that 40 to 50 million friends and family members also suffer from alcoholism and its affects. The help for alcoholics is Alcoholics Anonymous and the help for the non-alcoholic is the Al-Anon recovery program. I am here tonight to tell you about the Al-Anon recovery process. It is a free, 100% guaranteed life changing program thatRead MoreAlcoholics Anonymous Meeting, And A Nar Meeting1269 Words   |  6 PagesFor this assignment, I attended an Alcoholics Anonymous meeting, Ala-Anon meeting, Narcotics Anonymous meeting, and a Nar-Anon meeting. The Alcoholics Anonymous meeting was in Greensboro titled â€Å"Back to Reality†. It was located at a fellowship club. The Ala-Anon meeting was located at Centertary United Methodist Church in Greensboro. The Narcotics Anonymous meeting was located at Saint James Presbyterian Church and the Nar-Anon meeting was held at Saint Johns United Methodist Church which was inRead MoreAlcoholism-The Need for Improvement of Alcohol Treatment Programs574 Words   |  3 Pagesteens, college students, and adults. The word alcoholic means anyone who is affected by drinking, and seriously influences or interferes with his/her work, family, or health (Alcoh olic. 2009Merriam-Webster Dictionary) Alcoholism is a disease, and one of the worst to have. Over nine million Americans have alcoholism (Harris, 2000). Programs, such as Alcoholics Anonymous (AA), have a very high failure rate. About 90% to be more accurate. Very few alcoholics make it successfully through AA, leaving littleRead MoreAlcoholics Anonymous : A Anonymous1442 Words   |  6 PagesAlcoholics Anonymous Alcoholics Anonymous is a group composed of men and women who want to stop drinking and help each other stay on the path towards sobriety. They are not affiliated with any other organization, denomination, or institution and the only requirement for membership is the desire to stop drinking (Fisher Harrison, 2013). They meet at least once a week, if not more to support one another and to share their experiences, struggles, and successes. I attended an AA meeting held atRead MoreThe Importance Of A Counseling Student Studying Chemical Dependency957 Words   |  4 Pagesdependency, I was assigned to attend two 12-step meetings to better understand the 12-step process. I attended two Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) meetings at the Episcopal Church in Starkville; MS. AA is a worldwide fellowship of alcoholic men and women who are banded together to solve their common problems and to help fellow sufferers in recovery from alcoholism. These particular Alcoholics Anonymous meeting opened with a serenity prayer, a reading of the AA preamble, a daily reflection, and various other readings

Young People In Malta Education Essay Free Essays

Introduction For the bulk of immature people age group here please in Malta, the institutionalised and progressively standarised humanistic disciplines have perfectly no topographic point in their lives. Many have a negative position: the humanistic disciplines are seen as distant and institutional. Art galleries, museums and concert halls are ‘not for the like of us ‘[ 1 ]. We will write a custom essay sample on Young People In Malta Education Essay or any similar topic only for you Order Now Therefore if the NMFA wants immature people to love the museum, it must offer them some values that are of import to them, in activities that meet some of their demands, while besides go oning to supply the frequent visitants with what he or she already finds fulfilling and honoring. Young people are known for seeking topographic points to run into other immature people, and on an international degree, museums have become smart and safe locales to run into high-status persons Give names of the museums which are pulling such an audience Sociability, dating and networking are big parts of their visits. Many immature people want to take part in museums and other cultural organisations where did you acquire this resource from? . The thought of holding activities has spread fast in all the major and little museums worldwide please back this with a mention. These activities were ab initio held merely on Friday eventide, nevertheless mid-week activities are besides taking topographic point mention please. They offer a combination of music, lectures, arguments, one-off shows, manner, movies, nutrient and drink and through these they besides encourage rank give illustrations of which museums which undertake these events. Some museums have besides organized immature people consultative groups to raise financess for the purchase of art and other museum activities please give mention to which museums. Giving immature people a interest in a museum ‘s activities is a manner to advance engagement and creativeness, by offering them the chance to make exhibitions and programmes for illustration[ 2 ]. Finally these immature people will go members and givers as museum communities grow older. Please give mentions during this paragraph as it does sound like it is your sentiment and non based on research. The followers are a figure of instance surveies that have worked effectivelyaˆÂ ¦ etc, etc, 2.1 National Portrait Gallery, London Introduce the National portrayal Gallery and its success narratives or otherwise with a immature audience so travel on to a specific instance study/studies that you think is relevant to your capable – ATTRACTING A YOUNG AUDIENCE. Pleaser besides evaluate its relevancy and give your sentiment on why it worked or otherwise In 1993 the National Portrait Gallery in London proposed a programme that was intended to promote a diverse mix of immature people, the bulk of whom were non-visitors to the museum. On offer there was practical art and picture taking workshops inspired by the galleries lasting and impermanent exhibitions. The format of the picture taking workshop was to see the exhibition infinite, followed by a group treatment before the practical activities kicked off[ 3 ]. The participants were besides given a subdivision in the gallery in which their work was displayed mounted as a manner of advancing the educational programmes to wider gallery audiences, therefore promoting more participants in the workshops. The overall purpose was to show the galleries experience to immature people, by making a programme of activities that would stress the educational and challenge participants into better understanding the aggregation? , . It besides had enabled socialization, pleasance and amusement and besi des set uping a repute among instructors, young person workers, parents but more significantly immature people themselves[ 4 ]. This had to set? the National Portrait Gallery on the map, as a locale of involvement and relevancy. How were these workshops structured? What was different from the 1s held earlier and what madecthem attractive to a immature audience? In the paragraph that follows you move on to promotionaˆÂ ¦ why? For the range of the flow of your statement this does non keep. I would propose you foremost discourse the event, its strngths and failings and so travel on to discourse selling, etcaˆÂ ¦ The gallery had antecedently run activities for the 13-23 age group. These were recruited through mailing lists built up by interested gallery visitants. As a consequence, when activities were programmed the available infinites were filled by the boies and girls of frequent visitants. Obviously there was a high degree of parental encouragement, which can on occasion be a assorted approval, as immature people who are progressively seeking for their independency may be more receptive to prosecuting in an activity which they have chosen out of their free will. The first planned activitie s under the new programme were specifically targeted at groups contacted through young person services. The National Portrait Gallery was willing to join forces with young person groups and besides promote youth workers to advance the activities to interested persons[ 5 ]. In the summer months the National Portrait Gallery hosts the BP ( British Petroleum ) portrait award exhibition, an event designed t o foreground modern-day portrayal picture and the encourage the work of younger creative persons. In the first twelvemonth of the new immature people ‘s programmes the activities were extended to include 10 half twenty-four hours painting workshops and a two twenty-four hours picture taking workshop. The picture taking workshop was filled up while the picture was ill attended[ 6 ]– this is the positive result of the event – would associate it with the paragraph above. During an informal staff treatment a suggestion was made to include a circular in the following one-year school mailing. The circular was targeted at art instructors to show to pupils, ask foring names to be put frontward for a mailing list through which to publicize future art and picture taking activities. The consequence this generated was out of the blue positive and offered utile insight into how galleries might be marketed to immature people. It was the pick of these immature people to set their names down and be included in the list. By October the National Portrait Gallery had received over 400 names, with some schools returning a list of 20 names and reference while others merely two or three[ 7 ]. From now onwards you are discoursing a 2nd term of the programmeaˆÂ ¦ I would divide the gains/successes of the first session from those of the 2nd which should be progressively exponential When the gallery came to publicize the new programme of activities in the fall, the pe rsons who had expressed involvement were contacted straight by mail. This manner people were having first manus information instead than through instructors or parents. The response was once more impressive, with the sketch and imitation workshop and the three picture taking workshops oversubscribed in the first two hebdomads after the launch of the programmes. The most hearty thing of the ego subscribed mailing list was the mixture of people that appeared at the workshops. The common nexus between everyone was the enthusiasm for art, picture taking and design, together with the fact that merely a few had visited the museum. The policy of the instruction section of the National Portairt Gallery is to concentrate energies on supplying a face-to-face service for visitants, instead than interceding instruction experiences through the production of resource stuff. One direct benefit of the policy is that instruction work has a high public profile at the National Portrait Gallery and on any twenty-four hours a visitant is likely to meet groups and persons working in forepart of the images, engaged in activities such as drawing, public presentations or treatment, while more formal talks, movies and video showings and practical art Sessionss occur in the studio and talk suites. The section besides responds to a heavy demand for Sessionss in support of school course of studies runing from A degree to the National Curriculum. The heaviest demand comes from history instructors, for which the gallery provides a scope of both basic treatment Sessionss and more specialised activities on Tudor, Stuart and Victorian su bjects[ 8 ]. The National Portrait Gallery stresses the importance of the diverse peoples ‘ disablements. These non merely include those who are physically impaired, but besides immature people who are wholly or partly blind or deaf, immature people with speech damage, every bit good as those with moderate or terrible larning troubles, and those immature people who suffer from mental unwellness[ 9 ]. In developing services for such audiences with disablements, the National Portrait Gallery designed activities entirely for groups of handicapped visitants, orienting work to run into their demands and providing for moderate-sized groups, with the purpose of set uping and constructing a niche audience such as supplying negotiations and Tourss and workshops in mark linguistic communication[ 10 ]. These handicapped immature people, will merely bring forth a comparative little audience, but over clip that audience will be established and will desire to come back and be pro-actively involved with t he gallery in advancing and farther improving entree[ 11 ]. Please include the age bracket which you are discoursing. Does this age bracket coincide with the age bracket which you are research for the NFMA? An of import facet of the betterments made to the new 20th century galleries within the National Portrait Gallery was the inclusion of a touch trail for visually impaired people. This involved the choice and arrangement of 10 graven portrayals chosen for their varied scope of stuff and of technique and in the best tradition of the gallery, for their scope of Sitter. This promoted touching nevertheless this can merely be done while have oning cotton or latex baseball mitts. The trail is supplemented by 12 pictures selected for their graduated table and in writing daring and with entree aided by Braille labeling, big print usher, thermoform alleviation representations of the pictures and an audio-tape usher, all of which are available at the information desk[ 12 ]. The gallery besides offered sculpture workshops which begin with a circuit of the shows which introduce the participants to the gallery ‘s aggregation and so travel on to the geographic expedition of unfamiliar stuffs and work on new techniques. These events were promoted through disablement imperativeness and humanistic disciplines listings. However, the gallery besides promoted inside informations of events and workshops on local wireless. Noelle this is out of pointaˆÂ ¦ how does it associate to a immature audience? If it is an debut to the NPG educational programmes for a immature audience so it should travel at the beginning and as an debut to the instance survey Tate Britain Recognizing that museums and galleries have sometimes served to perpetuate exclusivity, the acquisition section at Tate sees art as a manner to analyze, challenge and transgress fanciful boundaries. One manner to make this is by acquiring immature people actively involved in gallery civilization[ 13 ]. Oky this is interesting – should you compare and contrast instance surveies? Why have you chosen Tate and NPG? It is better if you give the grounds why The Tate Gallery has been working with immature people beyond the schools sector since 1988, utilizing methods whereby immature people contribute to the programme and the establishment, through audience and peer-leadership. Is this different from NPG and V A ; A? Originally established at Tate Liverpool in 1994, Young TateA is now the umbrella name for the young person programme across all four gallery sites, every bit good as a dedicated online infinite[ 14 ]. Although each of the four sites has a typical programme of activities and frequently a peculiar targeted audience focal point, developed through discreet local partnerships, Young Tate has devised a common set of purposes. This can it in really good with Heritage Malta ‘s corporate programmeaˆÂ ¦ what do you believe? These include long-run benefits for immature people who are already committed to ocular civilization, to pull in those who are non and to heighten the lives and career potency of all Young Tate partici pants through deeper and more varied engagement in Tate and their local galleries. Equally good as create a infinite for the exchange of new thoughts in which immature people are consulted, have chances to take part in Tate ‘s cultural procedure and can take control of their acquisition and eventually to be inclusive and diverse both in programme content and in the immature people who participate in these programmes[ 15 ]. These were devised and agreed in 2006, through a series of meetings between the conservators from the different sites, pulling together their experiences of edifice, developing and measuring peer-led programmes over several old ages[ 16 ]. A programme called Tate Extra was established in 2001, with local authorities[ 17 ], to make chances during out of school hours for immature people. One of their key purposes was to better battle, motive and accomplishment through after hours ‘ activity, so there was a really direct nexus to formal instruction. The conservator worked with instructors drawn from schools in countries local to Tate Britain to enroll immature people who were already demoing marks of alienation towards the formal course of study, but who found art a topic they could associate to[ 18 ]. For Tate Britain the purpose was to convey more immature people into the galleries, for the gallery to react to the concerns and involvements of immature people and for them to derive entree to the gallery and the aggregation, in many instances for the first clip. After several old ages of running these one-year programmes, there was a clear demand to make a manner for these immature people to retain and develop their relationship with Tate. It merely became more and more evident that immature people were experiencing left out in the cold at the terminal of that undertaking. Tate had been successful plenty to develop a relationship with them that was independent from school and they wanted to go on it, and that ‘s when they started to believe about a peer-led programme[ 19 ]. This is non clearaˆÂ ¦ Tehre is Umbrella Tate ( ? ) so Tate Extra, Tate Forum and Raw CanvasaˆÂ ¦ can you present the wide image foremost and so discourse each programme in sequence? Is at that place a sequence? Apparently Raw Canvas was established before Tate Forum aˆÂ ¦ Therefore Tate Forum was set up in 2002 as a peer-led young person consultative group. At this pointA Raw Canvas[ 20 ], Tate Modern ‘s Young Tate group, was already established, ab initio enrolling most of its participants and audience through the web site. Many of them were art pupils, already involved in gallery-going and no longer in secondary instruction. In contrast, Tate Forum was aiming a somewhat younger and less confident audience, with an involvement in art but non a history of gallery attending. It was felt that working with schools would make a more socially and culturally diverse audience[ 21 ]. Youre back on Tate Forum now – Can you discourse each programme separately and in sequence? Tate Forum has developed over six old ages and now draws in immature people aged 13-25 through a scope of different events and undertakings, many straight targeted, others open to all immature people across London[ 22 ]. Other programmed drop-in activities and events are for a wide audience of immature Londoners, marketed through the Young Tate web site, e-bulletins, MySpace, local wireless musca volitanss, nine circulars, schools and colleges. The biggest one-year event, Loud Tate[ 23 ], one of three Saturday events sponsored by BP, attracted 2,500 immature people in 2007. Many of these immature people were sing the gallery for the first clip, drawn in by the promise of a free concert by DJs and Bands. The exciting thing about Loud Tate is the manner it involves immature people programming events across the gallery, transforming non merely the edifice but how one exists in and experiences that infinite: troubling for some, emancipating for others. Contributions such as loud music are perfectly valid originative activity and Tate Forum clearly feels ownership of both the infinite and the event. Bing a diverse group of immature people, necessarily they propose, and argue about, a varied scope of events and activities, exemplifying the world of democratic engagement in gallery civilization. Over the twelvemonth Tate Forum plans a figure of short, public events, programmed for immature audiences, including creative persons ‘ negotiations, originative art workshops and on-line undertakings. Devising, selling, running, documenting and measuring the undertakings is the duty of the immature people, in audience and with support from the Youth Curator and other relevant members of Tate staff[ 24 ]. The present Tate Forum construction consists of bi-weekly, two-hour eventide meetings throughout the twelvemonth when members meet and plan undertakings and events. There are a figure of recruitment events in spring, known as Taster Days, in add-on to the longer targeted undertakings. Attending two or more of these leads to an one-year twelve-session preparation class – in a hebdomadal, two-hour eventide slot over the summer – investing members into the assorted facets of the gallery including curating, selling, preservation, wellness and safety, visitant service s, art-handling and instruction[ 25 ]. Having completed this, members take an active portion in youth-programme development and production. Those over 16 are besides invited to go involved in other departmental events such as Late at Tate or Education Open Evenings, for which they are paid. Many of the original group of recruits joined through their engagement with GCSE Art, and ab initio the nexus between Tate Extra and developing GCSE coursework was rather expressed, so the group was mostly people interested and actively involved in art[ 26 ]. For these pupils Tate Forum offered the infinite to believe beyond the confines and conventions of art as a course of study topic, to develop and discourse thoughts with equals and to hold a broader apprehension of art ‘s signifiers and maps. One of the members Charlotte Allen please give age here of the Charlotte, who loves art but hated the manner it was taught in school provinces that: I ‘ve lost involvement in art in the schoolrooms. I do n’t see why I have to be in a schoolroom to pull or make anything. Why do I hold to be regimented? Why do I hold to make what my instructor says when surely art is an opinionative topic? aˆÂ ¦ I see coming here as what I think art should be. It should n’t be i n the schoolroom – it should be in galleries, it should be outside aˆÂ ¦ That ‘s what I think is the job with art in schools. What is your idea on this quotation mark? Do you experience that many pupils of her age agree with this? From where did you acquire this? The nexus between Tate Forum and academic or calling chances is a complex, and non straight causal, one. But several members cited specific illustrations where an penetration into the establishment, the assurance built through being portion of the group, or the connexions and conversations with professionals had been important[ 27 ]. For case, through the young person programme ‘s connexion with University of the Arts London, Widening Participation enterprise and the National Arts Learning Network ( NALN ) , one or two Tate Forum members met and had informal treatments with coachs from colleges where they went on to do an application and finally derive a topographic point. The relationship works both ways: NALN sees Tate Forum as a theoretical account of good pattern and has employed members as pupil embassadors at events such as Portfolio Advice Day[ 28 ]. Making entree for immature people who do non hold a tradition of museum and gallery-going beyond school trips could be cha racterised as worthy, and can be classified as portion of the tradition of a ‘civilising ritual ‘[ 29 ], that is, museums act as public infinites where moral and societal betterment can be obtained.A 2.3 The National Gallery Take One Picture[ 30 ]is the National Gallery ‘s nationwide strategy for primary schools. Each twelvemonth the Gallery focuses on one picture from the aggregation to animate cross-curricular work in primary schoolrooms. For 2008/2009 the focal point picture was on Renior ‘s Umbrellas and this saw more so two hundred schools submit their work[ 31 ]. This twelvemonth ‘s focal point picture is Tobias and the Angel by Andrea del Verrochio ‘s workshop. Take One Picture encourages pupils of all abilities because of the flexible and unfastened model[ 32 ]. Childs who are involved in category, whole school and national undertakings improve assurance in their ain work and enhances a sense of ownership for their national aggregation of pictures. During a one-day go oning professional development class at the Gallery, instructors are given a print of the picture. The challenge is so for schools to utilize the image imaginatively in the schoolroom, both as a stimulation for graphics but besides for work in more unexpected curriculum country. The National Gallery instruction section so displays a choice of the work on the one-year Take One Picture exhibition in the National Gallery. Over the old ages, the chosen images have been used by instructors in different ways. For illustration, a twelvemonth 6 instructor whose category was analyzing ‘A Midsummer Night ‘s Dream ‘ thought how this could be linked to Titian ‘s Bacchus and Ariadne through believing approximately charming and fabulous animals. These connexions were used to bring forth a videoA in which students from the school brush enigma and thaumaturgy in the forests environing their school[ 33 ]. Another instructor used Uccello ‘s picture in maths and created a Saint George and the Dragon serpents and ladders game. Another school planned to suspend the timetable for three yearss to concentrate on graphics across the course of study inspired by Titian ‘s Bacchus and Ariadne[ 34 ].A There is something ill-defined hereaˆÂ ¦ why are you discoursing kids when the range is to pull a immature audience? ? Please stipulate age bracket Take One Picture activities have a broad scope, and have included poesy, play, dance, sculpture, and even scientific discipline experiments and ICT[ 35 ]. The procedure of doing work collaboratively or separately can be really prosecuting for pupils. Teachers frequently remark on how ill-affected pupils have been motivated and stimulated by originative work.A After making the image, the following phase is to portion the work with a wider audience. Sharing gives pupils and instructors a opportunity to reflect on and to measure their work. This could include anything from demoing work to another category in the school, a school exhibition, a parents ‘ eventide or even a web site. One category performed their version of Saint George and the Dragon at a whole school assembly[ 36 ]. All Saints School in Hampshire published the pupils ‘ work on the school web site. A goupr of four schools from Swansea held a collaborative exhibition based on Canaletto ‘s The Stonemason â €˜s Yard for the whole community[ 37 ]. Traveling to the National Gallery to see their work, was a enormous experience for many of them, as they viewed their ain work next to that of Leonardo[ 38 ]. Same hereaˆÂ ¦ . The Courtauld Gallery Art history short classs and events are offered at The Courtauld Gallery through its Public Programme[ 39 ]for anyone with an involvement in art conditions they are immature people, schools, instructors, bookmans or the general populace. The purpose of these short classs, negotiations and events is to do The Courtauld Institute of Art ‘s scholarly expertness and the wealth of the Courtauld Gallery ‘s aggregation accessible to the wider populace. Courses and events are led by art historiographers and by experiences creative persons. In 2009 The Courtauld Gallery in coaction with the University of Arts, London organized a summer school and eventide classs viz. Inspiring Art History. Twenty-eight immature people from 11 schools and colleges across London aged 16 to 19 took portion in the advanced class which combined art history and life[ 40 ]. The participants explored art history research methods at the Courtauld and traveling images processes at the Graphic Design Department in Saint Martin ‘s College of Art and Design[ 41 ]. The class kicked off by sing the Gallery and the Universities, these were followed by art history talks, research and the opportunity to analyze the original plants of art in the aggregation, every bit good as larning the life techniques at Saint Martin ‘s. The undertaking was to work in braces or groups of three ‘s to take a work of art from the Courtauld aggregation and invent a short life movie that interprets an facet of its history. The life was designed for the new Animating Art History subdivision[ 42 ]for the Courtauld web site and is aimed at animating kids and instructors to research art and art history and see the Gallery. The Courtauld conservators helped them happen out more about the picture and they besides carried out research in the library and online. The development subject for the life had to concentrate on the technique used, the history or the creative person ‘s thought. The spoken text had to be simple, accurate and focussed. The clear academic message was to hold adequate substance to animate the audience to happen out more about art and history of art. A short text panel had to be written to depict why the work of art was chosen. It besides had to include facts about the creative persons, the stuff used, the day of the months of the work and historical information about society and civilization of the clip[ 43 ]. Participants made stop-frame life utilizing merely 12 digital stills inspired by something in the Courtauld Gallery. They took exposures on the courtyard of Someret House and used specializer package at Saint Martin ‘s to inspire them. They besides photographed the architecture of the Gallery[ 44 ]. All this research was conducted in groups together they tried out tonss of different techniques utilizing different cameras, pixilations and computing machines. At the terminal of the class they had to show their work in a screening event attended besides by the Heads of both Universities[ 45 ]. The Sir John Soane Museum The Sir John Soane Musuem has late launched half- or full-day kids ‘s workshops in the school vacations which include October half term, Christmas holidays, February half term, Easter Holidays, June half term and the summer vacations. The purpose behind these workshops is to either develop a accomplishment or research Soane ‘s hoarded wealths with specialist counsel. The workshops are suited for kids aged 7+ and the cost is ?18 for a whole twenty-four hours or ?10 for half twenty-four hours[ 46 ]. The monetary value includes all the stuffs, nevertheless tiffin is non included and kids must acquire their ain. The activities are huge and are at times besides related to vacations such as Christmas. Christmas, All Wrapped Up, is one of the workshops were kids will be asked to do their ain printed Christmas wrapping paper by making stencils inspired by spiels in the Museum[ 47 ]. The Easter activity viz. Extraordinary Eggs, allows the kids to research the Museums to happen a form and pigment an egg with a Soane inspired design[ 48 ]. For the October half term the activities are based around Halloween, Shadowy Secrets at the Soane, where those taking portion make their ain traveling shadow marionettes to state shade narratives by lamplight in the Museum. On the other manus there are activities that are based on the museum such as Momentous Memorials, here the kids are inspired by Britannia, John Soane ‘s theoretical account of a colossal memorial that could hold been one of Britain ‘s greatest of all time constructions, nevertheless it was ne’er built! The thought of this wo rkshop is to plan and construct your ain great monuments.A Another activity involves runing for Wyrd and fantastic caputs made of rock, clay or plaster know as Heads Galore! And the kids must so plan and do their ain particular caput from clay[ 49 ]. 2.6 The Victoria and Albert Museum Design for Life is a partnership undertaking which focuses on prosecuting immature people in originative design through the usage of museums. The undertaking is led by the V A ; A with Action for Children[ 50 ]and five regional galleries and museums such as the Brighton, Birmingham and Manchester City Museums and Art Galleries. Design for Life is an action research undertaking which aims to place ways in which museums could back up immature people in developing their endowments and contribute to the originative economic system, both as manufacturers and informed consumers. In the initial pilot stage which was in 2008-09, it was known as Design Your Life and worked with over 300 immature people aged 11-18 from schools and community groups to research and prove a varied scope of design based larning programmes inspired by museum aggregations. TheA undertaking has merely now completed its 2nd twelvemonth and this twelvemonth ‘s subject was Recycled, embracing both the environment-friendly usage of stuffs and besides the ‘recycling ‘ of practical and ocular thoughts gained from museum objects[ 51 ]. Through the originative design procedure each individual re-imagined and individualized these thoughts to make a alone and typical merchandise. This twelvemonth the V A ; A worked with two groups of immature people- 14 misss from twelvemonth 10 GCSE Product Design class at Eltham Hill Collage of Technology and a group of eight immature people aged 9-14 from the Action for Children Haringey Young Carers undertaking. At Eltham Hill, the brief was to do T-shirts frocks and make a fabric design inspired by the Museum. The misss created necklaces to complement the frock[ 52 ]. At the Museum they were inspired by manner designs by Mary Quant and pop art imagination. Two professional designers- in manner and jewelry visited the school to show their working procedures, aid pupils with their work and give feedback at the terminal of the undertaking. The misss developed their thoughts and created fabric designs with a combination of techniques including cut stencil with spray cloth pigments and iron-on transportation printing of digital images, the jewelry pieces were either dramatis personae in pewter from clay molds or cut from MDF ( Medium-density fibreboard )[ 53 ]. The concluding plants were exhibited at a manner show window event at the V A ; A. The Haringey Young Carers attended three ‘meet a interior decorator and do ‘ yearss and a 4th show window event[ 54 ]. The first twenty-four hours was merchandise design with the V A ; A ‘s so designer-in-resident Lao Jianhua where the immature people made lamp shades inspired by the Chinese and Nipponese galleries. The 2nd session was jewellery devising: forms cut in thin Cooper foil inspired by motives in the South Asiatic galleries. The 3rd was T-shirt picture inspired by forms and colorss from the glass gallery[ 55 ]. The concluding show window event was good attended by parents and the three interior decorators presented the immature people with certifications of accomplishment. From 26 April-8 June 2010 the V A ; A hosted the national exhibition of immature people ‘s work with an attach toing immature people ‘s conference. Over the comingA twelvemonth the undertaking plans to develop a replicable design larning ‘package ‘ to enthuse immature people about originative design and its potency in their lives.A Online resources will be created and training/dissemination events will advance wider engagement by museums countrywide[ 56 ]. Friday Late is held on the lastA Friday in every month ( except December ) when the Museum is unfastened from 10.00 to 22.00 with events get downing at 18.30[ 57 ]. In the June edition of Friday Late visitants had the chance to research seven V A ; A commissioned constructions located around the Museum. The infinites had been created particularly for the exhibition 1:1 – Architects Build Small Spaces[ 58 ]A by international designers at the head of experimental design. Highlights included a reading tower by Norse designers Rintala Eggertsson with shelves keeping over 6000 books and cocoon ‘reading ‘ booths, Terunobu Fujimori ‘s wooden retreat elevated on stilt-like legs in the Medieval A ; Renaissance Galleries, plus Studio Mumbai ‘s series of narrow corridors and illumination infinites inspired by parasitic architecture in theA Cast Courts. The eventide ‘s focal point was on confidant infinites, architecture as an experience and an geographic expedition of the ways in which people could interact with architecture, both physically and emotionally. Particular public presentations took topographic point around the exhibition installings, every bit good as events and impermanent intercessions in the most unusual of the V A ; A ‘s infinites. Visitors enjoyed exhibition designers Vazio S/A and Triptych Architects in conversation, took an disingenuous ocean trip into modernist architecture with showings of Graham Ellard A ; Stephen Johnstone ‘s 16mm movie Machine on Black Ground and experienced a ‘musical pronunciamento ‘ talk from Helsinki-based designer, mind and instrumentalist, Tuomas Toivonen[ 59 ]. A bantam personal disco created by Post-Office, theater from The Factory, trade building workshops and a ‘woodshedding ‘ wind session were besides on offer. There was besides the cha nce to run into V A ; A artists-in-residence Aberrant Architecture, and see the alone show of their theoretical accounts and digital projections, to research the Museum ‘s far-out architectural inside informations and secret infinites with a V A ; A archivist, every bit good as one-off male entree to the Museum ‘s late renovated ladies toilets designed by designers Glowacka Rennie with artist Felice Varini[ 60 ]. In add-on, there was out-of-hours entree to the Museum’sA Grace Kelly: Style IconA andA QuiltsA exhibition. Having had the chance to go to this edition of Friday Late, I can state that the crowd was wholly different from the day-to-day one. There were a batch of people below the 30 age bracket, most of whom, after traveling round the exhibits congregated at the entryway country of the V A ; A where a unrecorded DJ and nutrient and drinks every bit good as cocktails were served all eventide. Some were standing or sitting as they socialised with their friends over a glass of vino. The V A ; A besides offers a figure of activities based on diverse cultural backgrounds. These include a Black Heritage Programme[ 61 ]and a hebdomad dedicated to Refugees[ 62 ]. The Black Heritage Programme offers an exciting scope of particular events. These events include unrecorded wind to observe the work of the legendary musician Louis Armstrong, touring the galleries and exhibitions, larning more about societal militant Paul Robeson and his conflicts with the FBI, or pass an eventide researching Rastafarian narration of supplications, verse forms and listening to some vintage Jamdown sounds. There was besides an eventide of vocal and dance for households of all ages named Caribbean Liming Families Night. Here one could detect old and new dances, articulation in a parade having island sounds and larn to sing folk vocals. One could besides listen to narratives and narratives, make charming masks and dress up as a carnival character with a painted face and adorn an island backgr ound with shells from the Caribbean coast[ 63 ]. Refugee Week is a free event dedicated to refugee-made work and how it has contributed to the V A ; A aggregations. The hebdomad long events consist of negotiations, Tourss, workshops and unrecorded public presentations. One of the activities during this twelvemonth ‘s Refugee hebdomad was Making Memories where 1 could do an graphics utilizing personal exposure, narrative relation and memories with the aid of textile creative person Natasha Kerr.A The participants had to convey personal household exposure and portion the narratives and memories attached to the images.A An exhibition about the development of comforters ( Quilts: 1700-2010 ) ran at the same time with Refugee hebdomad and served the participants with a farther beginning of inspiration. The participants so spent the afternoon working onA a creative activity of their ain, and left with the accomplishments and inspiration to go on makingA fantastic fabrics at place[ 64 ]. My V A ; A is a circuit that sees the V A ; A ‘s aggregations from a different position. It allows a refugee be the usher, taking those interested on a alone circuit of the Museum as objects in the galleries act as a springboard for their ain extremely personal narratives[ 65 ]. The V A ; A ‘s Access, Social Inclusion and Community Development Team works difficult to stand for the involvements of cultural diverseness and equality across the museum. Their purpose has been to do the Sackler Centre[ 66 ]feel welcoming, attractive, relevant and prosecuting to the widest possible scope of people.A The new infinites has enable them to run exciting undertakings, promoting visitants from diverse backgrounds to research and prosecute with the aggregations in differentA ways and besides to make out farther to wider audiences beyond the walls utilizing the engineering that the new Centre will supply[ 67 ]. An advanced residence strategy has seen two studios in the Centre being used by creative persons, interior decorators and craftspeople interacting with the populace. The Access, Social Inclusion and Community Development Team have late organised a series of jewelry workshops with immature work forces who come from refuge and refugee communities. The immature work forces in these workshops originate from Iran, Iraq, Afghanistan and Somalia and had ne’er made jewelry before[ 68 ].A TheyA were really acute to acquire involved with this extremely proficient and originative art signifier, utilizing the Indian aggregations in the Nehru Gallery as an inspiration.A The group worked with a professional jewelry maker who interacted good with the immature work forces and pitchedA workshops at the right degree in order to to the full prosecute with the participants[ 69 ].A It is expected that these immature people will go on to work with the V A ; A across its many exciting and diverse programmes in the new Centre. How to cite Young People In Malta Education Essay, Essay examples

Fiber Optics1 Essay Example For Students

Fiber Optics1 Essay Today many communications companies are replacing their copper carrier wires with fiber optic cables. A fiber optic cable is capable of transmitting laser light across thousands of miles and can carry many more messages at the same time than the copper wire of equivalent diameter. With the relentless pursuit of bandwidth, fiber optic cabling is being deployed at an ever increasing rate. This cable, which uses glass to carry light pulses, poses both advantages and challenges. The intent of this paper is to explain the hows and whys of fiber optic cabling and to provide a set of solutions to the challenges faced with its use and give you an understanding of fiber optic cable technology and its applications. Fiber optic cabling has much to offer, and in most cases, its use will provide benefits which justify the implementation. Since the invention of the telegraph by Samuel Morse in 1838, there has been a constant push to provide data at higher and higher rates. Today, the push continue s. Just as RS-232 attached terminals gave way to 10Mbps Ethernet and 4 and 16 Mbps Token Ring, these are giving way to Fast Ethernet (100Mbps), FDDI (100Mbps), ATM (155Mbps), Fiber Channel (1062Mbps) , Gigabit Ethernet (1000Mbps). With each of these increases in speed, the physical layer of the infrastructure is placed under more stress and more limitations. The cabling installed in many environments today cannot support the demands of Fast Ethernet let alone ATM, Fiber Channel, or Gigabit Ethernet. Fiber Optic cabling provides a viable alternative to copper. Unlike its metallic counterpart, fiber cabling does not have the severe speed and distance limitations that plague network administrators wishing to upgrade their networks. Because it is transmitting light, the limitations are on the devices driving it more than on the cable itself. By installing fiber optic cabling, the high cost of labor and the time associated with the cabling plant can be expected to provide service for the projected future. Plastic Optical Fiber (POF) technology is making fiber even more affordable and easier to install. Because the core is plastic instead of glass, terminating the cable is easier. The trade-off for this lower cost and ease of installation is shorter distance capabilities and bandwidth limitations. Fiber optic cabling has the following components (starting in the center and working out): core, cladding, coating, strength member, and jacket. The design and function of each of these will be defined. The core is in the very center of the cable and is the medium of propagation for the signal. The core is made of silica glass or plastic (in the case of POF) with a high refractive index. The actual core is very small (compared to the wire gauges we are used to). Typical core sizes range from 8 microns (millionth of a meter) for single mode silica glass cores up to 1000 microns for multi mode POF. The cladding is a material of lower index of refraction which surrounds the c ore. This difference in index forms a mirror at the boundary of the core and cladding. Because of the lower index, it reflects the light back into the center of the core, forming an optical wave guide. This is the same effect as looking out over a calm lake and noting the reflection, while looking straight down you see through the water. It is this interaction of core and cladding that is at the heart of how optical fiber works. The coating (also referred to as buffer or buffer coating) is a protective layer around the outside of the cladding. It is typically made of a thermoplastic material for tight buffer construction and a gel material for loose buffer construction. As the name implies, in tight buffer construction, the buffer is extruded directly onto the fiber, tightly surrounding it. Loose buffer construction uses a gel filled tube which is larger than the fiber itself. Loose buffer construction offers a high degree of isolation from external mechanical forces such as vibrati on. Tight buffer construction on the other hand provides for a smaller bend radius, smaller overall diameter, and crush resistance. To further protect the fiber from stretching during installation, and to protect it from expansion and contraction due to temperature changes, strength members are added to the cable construction. These members are made from various materials from steel (used in some multi strand cables) to Kevlar. In single and double fiber cables, the strength members are wrapped around the coating. In some multi-strand cables, the strength member is in the center of the bundle. The jacket is the last item in the construction, and provides the final protection from the environment in which the cable is installed. Of concern here is the intended placement of the cable. Different jackets provide different solutions for indoor, outdoor, aerial, and buried installations. We will write a custom essay on Fiber Optics1 specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now The most common size of multi mode fiber used in networking is 62.5/125 fiber. This fiber has a core of 62.5 microns and a cladding of 125 microns. This is ideally suited for use with 850nm and 1300nm wavelength drivers and receivers. For single mode networking applications, 8.3/125 is the most common size. Its smaller core is the key to single mode operation. Numerical aperture and acceptance angles are two different ways of expressing the same thing. For the core / cladding boundary to work as a mirror, the light needs to strike at it a small / shallow angle (referred to as the angle of incidence). This angle is specified as the acceptance angle and is the maximum angle at which light can be accepted by the core. Acceptance angle can also be specified as Numerical Aperture, which is the sin of the acceptance angle (Numerical Aperture = sin (acceptance angle)). .ub7c62ae0537c0fe01af081a4e1e633a0 , .ub7c62ae0537c0fe01af081a4e1e633a0 .postImageUrl , .ub7c62ae0537c0fe01af081a4e1e633a0 .centered-text-area { min-height: 80px; position: relative; } .ub7c62ae0537c0fe01af081a4e1e633a0 , .ub7c62ae0537c0fe01af081a4e1e633a0:hover , .ub7c62ae0537c0fe01af081a4e1e633a0:visited , .ub7c62ae0537c0fe01af081a4e1e633a0:active { border:0!important; } .ub7c62ae0537c0fe01af081a4e1e633a0 .clearfix:after { content: ""; display: table; clear: both; } .ub7c62ae0537c0fe01af081a4e1e633a0 { display: block; transition: background-color 250ms; webkit-transition: background-color 250ms; width: 100%; opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #95A5A6; } .ub7c62ae0537c0fe01af081a4e1e633a0:active , .ub7c62ae0537c0fe01af081a4e1e633a0:hover { opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #2C3E50; } .ub7c62ae0537c0fe01af081a4e1e633a0 .centered-text-area { width: 100%; position: relative ; } .ub7c62ae0537c0fe01af081a4e1e633a0 .ctaText { border-bottom: 0 solid #fff; color: #2980B9; font-size: 16px; font-weight: bold; margin: 0; padding: 0; text-decoration: underline; } .ub7c62ae0537c0fe01af081a4e1e633a0 .postTitle { color: #FFFFFF; font-size: 16px; font-weight: 600; margin: 0; padding: 0; width: 100%; } .ub7c62ae0537c0fe01af081a4e1e633a0 .ctaButton { background-color: #7F8C8D!important; color: #2980B9; border: none; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: none; font-size: 14px; font-weight: bold; line-height: 26px; moz-border-radius: 3px; text-align: center; text-decoration: none; text-shadow: none; width: 80px; min-height: 80px; background: url(; position: absolute; right: 0; top: 0; } .ub7c62ae0537c0fe01af081a4e1e633a0:hover .ctaButton { background-color: #34495E!important; } .ub7c62ae0537c0fe01af081a4e1e633a0 .centered-text { display: table; height: 80px; padding-left : 18px; top: 0; } .ub7c62ae0537c0fe01af081a4e1e633a0 .ub7c62ae0537c0fe01af081a4e1e633a0-content { display: table-cell; margin: 0; padding: 0; padding-right: 108px; position: relative; vertical-align: middle; width: 100%; } .ub7c62ae0537c0fe01af081a4e1e633a0:after { content: ""; display: block; clear: both; } READ: Integrity EssayWith a basic understanding of fiber construction, explanation of transmitters (the devices that put the pulses of light into the fiber) is in order. From a general level, there are three aspects of transmitters to discuss: Transmitters can be divided into 2 groups, lasers and LEDs. LEDs are by far the most common as they provide low cost and very efficient solutions. Most multi mode transmitters are of the LED variety. When high power is required for extended distances, lasers are used. Lasers provide reliable light and the ability to produce a lot of light energy. The drawbacks to lasers are their cost and electrical power consumption. Equipment using high power lasers must provide cooling and access to a primary power source such as 120V AC. Transmitter types can also be broken down into single mode versus multi mode transmitters. Multi mode transmitters are used with larger cable (typically 62.5/125 microns for most data networking applications) and emit multiple rays or modes of light into the fiber. Each one of these rays enters at a different angle and as such has a slightly different path through the cable. This results in the light reaching the far end at slightly different times. This difference is arrival times are termed modal dispersion and causes signal degradation. Single mode transmitters are used with very small cable (typically 8/125 microns) and emit light in a single ray. Because there is only one mode, all light gets to the far end at the same time, eliminating modal dispersion. The wavelength of the transmitter is the color of the light. The visible light spectrum starts around 750nm and goes to 390nm. The 850nm transmitters common in multi mode Ethernet can be seen because 850nm is the center of their bandwidth and they emit some visible light in the 750nm range giving them their red color. The 1300nm and 1550nm transmitters emit light only in the infrared spectrum. The difference in performance of the various wavelengths is beyond the scope of this paper. What is important is an awareness of the wavelengths and that the equipment on both ends of the fiber needs to be matched. The final characteristic of transmitters is the output power. This is a measure of the optical energy (intensity) launched into the fiber. It is measured in dBm. A typical value for multi mode transmitters used in Ethernet is -15dBm. Single mode transmitters have a wide range in power depending on the application. With a knowledge of transmitters, what happens at the other end of the cable is important. The light pulses are terminated and detected with a receiver. Receivers have three basic considerations. These are: Sensitivity is the counterpart to power for transmitters. It is a measurement of how much light is required to accurately detect and decode the data in light stream. It is expressed in dBm and is a negative number. The smaller the number (remember -40 is smaller than -30) the better the receiver. Typical values range from -30dBm to -40dBm. Receive sensitivity and transmitter power are used to calculate the optical power budget available for the cable. This calculation is: Power Budget = Transmitter Power Receiver Sensitivity, Using the typical values given for multi mode Ethernet above, the power budget would be: 15dBm = -15dBm (-30dBm) The optical power budget must be greater then all of the cable plant losses (such as attenuation, losses due to splices and connectors, etc.) fo r the installation to work properly. Figure A. SC Connector Figure B. ST Connector Many different connector styles have found their way into fiber optic networking. The SC connector (Figure A) has recently been standardized by ANSI TIA/EIA-568A for use in structured wiring installations. Many single mode applications are now only available in the SC style. The ST connector (Figure B) has been the connector of choice for these environments, and continues to be widely used. FDDI uses the MIC connector which is a duplex connector. It is physically larger then the SC connector, and the SC connector is gaining acceptance in the FDDI marketplace. Fiber provides several advantages to Ethernet and Fast Ethernet networks. The most common advantage and therefore use of fiber is to overcome the distance limitations of coaxial and twisted pair copper topologies. Ethernet being run on coax (10Base2) has a maximum distance limitation of 185m, and Ethernet being run on twisted pair (10BaseT and 100BaseTX) has a limitation of 100m.Fiber can greatly extend these distances with multi-mode fiber providing 2000m and single-mode fiber supporting 5km in half duplex environments, and much more (depending on transmitter strength and receiver sensitivity) in full duplex installations. Ethernet running at 10Mbps has a limitation of 4 repeaters, providing some leniency in the solutions available for distance, however, Fast Ethernet only allows for 2 repeaters and only 5m of cable between them. As Fast Ethernet becomes more ubiquitous, the need for fiber optic cabling will grow as well. When distance is an issue, fiber provides what may be the onl y solution. Even when using coaxial cable or twisted pair (shielded or unshielded), some electrical noise may be emitted by the cable. This is especially true as connectors and ground connections age or weaken. In some environments (medical for example), the potential risk associated with this is just not acceptable, and costs of alternative cable routings too high. Because fiber optic cabling uses light pulses to send the signal, there is NO radiated noise. This makes it perfectly safe to install this cabling in any sensitive environment. Optical fiber adds additional security protection as well. There are no emissions to pick up and decode, and it is not feasible to tap into it for the purposes of eavesdropping. This makes fiber optic cabling ideal for secure network installations. Another problem that is common when using copper cabling is other electrical noise getting into the desired electrical networking signal. This can be a problem in noisy manufacturing environments or oth er heavy industrial applications. The use of optical fiber provides a signal that will be completely unaffected by this noise. In some instances, fiber provides the advantage that it can withstand more tension during the cable pulling. It is also smaller in size then twisted pair cables and therefore takes up less room. Compared to Category 5 UTP, most duplex fiber optical cable can also endure a tighter bend radius while maintaining specified performance. .u5be0e1c4c99a0d2d3eb11e7ab7df6eb2 , .u5be0e1c4c99a0d2d3eb11e7ab7df6eb2 .postImageUrl , .u5be0e1c4c99a0d2d3eb11e7ab7df6eb2 .centered-text-area { min-height: 80px; position: relative; } .u5be0e1c4c99a0d2d3eb11e7ab7df6eb2 , .u5be0e1c4c99a0d2d3eb11e7ab7df6eb2:hover , .u5be0e1c4c99a0d2d3eb11e7ab7df6eb2:visited , .u5be0e1c4c99a0d2d3eb11e7ab7df6eb2:active { border:0!important; } .u5be0e1c4c99a0d2d3eb11e7ab7df6eb2 .clearfix:after { content: ""; display: table; clear: both; } .u5be0e1c4c99a0d2d3eb11e7ab7df6eb2 { display: block; transition: background-color 250ms; webkit-transition: background-color 250ms; width: 100%; opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #95A5A6; } .u5be0e1c4c99a0d2d3eb11e7ab7df6eb2:active , .u5be0e1c4c99a0d2d3eb11e7ab7df6eb2:hover { opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #2C3E50; } .u5be0e1c4c99a0d2d3eb11e7ab7df6eb2 .centered-text-area { width: 100%; position: relative ; } .u5be0e1c4c99a0d2d3eb11e7ab7df6eb2 .ctaText { border-bottom: 0 solid #fff; color: #2980B9; font-size: 16px; font-weight: bold; margin: 0; padding: 0; text-decoration: underline; } .u5be0e1c4c99a0d2d3eb11e7ab7df6eb2 .postTitle { color: #FFFFFF; font-size: 16px; font-weight: 600; margin: 0; padding: 0; width: 100%; } .u5be0e1c4c99a0d2d3eb11e7ab7df6eb2 .ctaButton { background-color: #7F8C8D!important; color: #2980B9; border: none; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: none; font-size: 14px; font-weight: bold; line-height: 26px; moz-border-radius: 3px; text-align: center; text-decoration: none; text-shadow: none; width: 80px; min-height: 80px; background: url(; position: absolute; right: 0; top: 0; } .u5be0e1c4c99a0d2d3eb11e7ab7df6eb2:hover .ctaButton { background-color: #34495E!important; } .u5be0e1c4c99a0d2d3eb11e7ab7df6eb2 .centered-text { display: table; height: 80px; padding-left : 18px; top: 0; } .u5be0e1c4c99a0d2d3eb11e7ab7df6eb2 .u5be0e1c4c99a0d2d3eb11e7ab7df6eb2-content { display: table-cell; margin: 0; padding: 0; padding-right: 108px; position: relative; vertical-align: middle; width: 100%; } .u5be0e1c4c99a0d2d3eb11e7ab7df6eb2:after { content: ""; display: block; clear: both; } READ: Hungarian Dances EssayFiber optical cabling is not a cure-all however, there are some challenges to be resolved. The first (and probably the best known), is the cost of termination. Because of the need for perfect connections, splices and connections must be carefully cut and then polished to preserve the optical characteristics. The connectors must also maintain a very high level of precision to guarantee alignment of the fibers. The second problem that is encountered when installing fiber cabling is that legacy equipment does not support fiber connections. Very few desktop computers have a fiber network interface, and some critical network equipment does not offer a fibe r interface. In Ethernet, the size of the collision domain can effect the use of fiber. In a half duplex (shared media) environment, no 2 devices can be separated by more then 512 bit times. While the transmission of a signal is faster through fiber than copper, only about 11% faster and not enough to make a significant difference. This limitation means that there are times when the signal quality and fiber are sufficient to carry the signal but the distance and network design rule out its use. Fortunately, the problems are not without solutions. As fiber deployment increases, the economy of scale for the manufacturers is driving costs down. Also, much work is being done to further reduce these costs, Plastic Optical Fiber is an example of one such development. The need to connect to legacy equipment and infrastructure also has a solution. By using copper to fiber media converters, fiber can be connected to almost any legacy environment. Equipment equipped with an AUI port can also make use of fiber transceivers as well. Media converters are devices (usually small enough in size to fit in the palm of your hand) which take in signals from one media type and send it out on another media type. For those instances when collision domain restrictions preclude the use of fiber, a 2 port bridging device (such as Transition Networks Bridging Media Converter) with 10/100-Base-T(X) on one port and fiber on the other can be used. Bridges by definition break collision domains, and when connected to a server, workstation, or another bridge can operate in Full Duplex mode. In this mode, there are no limitations imposed by collision domains, and the distance attainable is solely a function of the fiber cable; and transmitters and receivers. Fiber optic cabling is rapidly becoming the most viable choice for data networking infrastructure. With the cost of cable, connectors, installation, and equipment becoming competitive with traditional copper solutions, fiber should be given serious consideration. Transition Networks complete line of fiber connectivity products are specifically designed to ease this migration to fiber. Once installed, fiber optic cabling will future proof your cabling infrastructure, providing support for even the fastest most demanding protocols. Bibliography:

Monday, May 4, 2020

Chronic and Acute inflammation

Questions: 1. Talk about Inflammation and distinguishing between Chronic and Acute inflammation (with examples). 2. Explain more details about chronic inflammation (with examples).Explain Causes of Chronic inflammation especially lifestyle, diet lack of exercise, obesity life-stress, genetic etc.explain how lifestyles affect the cause of chronic inflammation. 3. Talk about Chronic inflammation associated diseases and treatments eg T2D. Atherosclerosis-cardiovascular, cancer. 4. Components of Chronic Inflammation, Types of inflammatory cells and mediators, Neutrophils, macrophages or monocytes, mechanism of macrophage activation or polarisation. Answers: 1. Inflammation Inflammation is referred to the localized physical condition where due to some physiological reactions, the body parts become reddened, hot, swollen and painful. Usually, these kinds of phenomenon results from the infection, external or internal injury (Aggarwal et al. 2012). The process is a part of complex biological response of body tissues towards the harmful stimuli including damaged cells, pathogens or irritants. Through these kinds of processes, the immune cells protect body system by involving different immune cells, blood vessels and molecular mediators. Through this process, the immune cells eliminate the initial causes of cell injury by clearing out the necrotic and damaged tissues from body and promote the tissue repairing system. Its five basic signs, calor or heat, dolor or pain, rubor or redness, tumor or swelling and loss of function characterize the phenomenon, inflammation. It is the initial response of immune system and mediated by the immune cells, thus, it is classified under the innate immunity or cell mediated immunity in comparison to the adaptive immunity that is specific for each pathogen. There are mainly two types of inflammation which are acute and chronic inflammation (Cho and Yu 2012). Chronic inflammation is more severe form of inflammation than the acute one. Acute inflammation Acute infection is usually induced in the damaged tissues as a result of trauma, microbial invasion or noxious compounds. The acute inflammation is mediated by the immune cells and the secreted chemical mediators, which are known as cytokines and other molecules. In the case of acute inflammation, the anaphylatoxins are released at inflammation site, which are small inflammation-causing chemicals, these mediators promote the secretion of chemical mediators including histamine, prostaglandins or serotonin from the mast cells, thereby causing blood vessel expansion, making them more permeable (Daniluk 2012). In this way, the neutrophils are allowed to migrate into the affected tissue through diapedesis for clearing out the noxious substances in blood. The more blood cells accumulation causes redness and the destructive reactions cause heat. Most of bacterial or fungal infections cause acute inflammation. Lesions include pus, rash and abscess. For example, allergic anaphylaxis causes ac ute inflammation (Dietert and Luebke 2012). Chronic inflammation In contrast to the acute inflammation, the chronic inflammation is seen as a response to some viral infections and hypersensitivity reactions. It is seen in some infections where the inflammation is persistent. In contrast to the neutrophils and chemical mediators released by mast cells, the primary immune cells are T lymphocytes and macrophages here. The cytokines secreted by these cells causes more long-term damage to the tissues (French 2011). In the case of chronic inflammation, the acute infection allows continuous tissue damage to cells leading to tissue fibrosis. Lesions include fibrosis, rash or granuloma. Example includes autoimmune condition such as rheumatoid arthritis. 2. Chronic inflammation Chronic inflammation is usually the persistent and ongoing inflammation process after an acute inflammation. If the infection persists with more tissue destruction after the phase of acute inflammation, it can be said that chronic inflammation has taken place. In some cases, some pathogens directly provoke chronic inflammation in spite of initiating an acute inflammation first. Increased permeability of capillaries, increased blood flow and many other factors of acute inflammation continue with chronic stage (Lichti 2012). Neutrophils enter into the infected tissue and quickly recruit lymphocytes and macrophages through chemical mediators secretion. Macrophages initiate the phagocytosis process. Sometimes, they are not able to digest all the engulfed material and the pathogenic substances persist within macrophages while the macrophages are engulfing more, thereby continuing the symptoms of inflammation for longer period. In some cases, macrophages fuse and forms giant cells and thes e fused cells are found in the form of layers surrounding the damaged central core, which are known as granuloma. It is one of the significant features of tuberculosis (Ashton Acton 2012). Causes of Chronic inflammation There are a number of causes, which could cause chronic inflammation. Lifestyle Sedentary lifestyle, stress and exhaustions are crucial cause of chronic inflammation. Consuming a huge number of antibiotics can cause inflammatory symptoms via cross-reaction. More exposure to toxin for example, farmers working with pesticides can cause chronic inflammation. Vitamin D is an important component of system modulation, lack of sun exposure lowers the immune systems ability to work properly, enhancing chance of inflammation (Roy et al. 2012). Diet There are a number of foods, which can cause inflammation. Sugar triggers a number of cytokines causing inflammation. Saturated fat is another food substance, which cause inflammation of adipose tissues. Thus, cheese, full-fat dairy products, grain-based desserts, red meat should be avoided in diet. Trans fat causes systematic inflammation. Gluten and casein are also causative agents of chronic inflammation. Thus, food substances containing these factors should be avoided from daily diet. Alcohol and smoking are also major causes of inflammation (Schillde 2013). Lack of exercise People having insomnia are prone to chronic inflammation due to over secretion of inflammation causing cytokines. Lack of sleep promotes inflammation. Individual experiencing autoimmune disease are seen to have less sleep which promote the situation with more pain. Exercise helps to active the immune system. Exercise causes healthy muscle contractions, which causes the secretion of cytokines like IL-6, IL-8 and IL-15, thereby contributing in anti-inflammatory actions (Wick and Grundtman 2012). Obesity and depression Macrophages infiltrate the adipose tissues and release another set of chemical mediators which further promote inflammation. It has been reported that the accumulation of macrophages also causes insulin resistance in obese people. In addition, evidence suggest that depression and stress has a significant link with chronic inflammation. At stressed condition, more cortisol hormones are produced which is also promoted to the cytokines released due to lack of sleep that is interconnected with stress. These are stimulators of chronic inflammation (Thilakarathna and Rupasinghe 2013). Genetic Acute inflammation is followed by chronic inflammation signs through the signal transduction. JAK-STAT pathway has a major role in signal transduction. Mutation in these pathways can cause inflammation. Some autoimmune diseases are also caused by mutation in essential genes. 3. Chronic inflammation associated disease and treatments Type 2 Diabetes As described earlier, accumulation of macrophages at the site of inflammation has a major role in causing insulin resistance, which is the major cause of type 2 diabetes disease. Researchers found that accumulated macrophages secretes some immune mediators including TNF-alpha and other cytokines which are promoting the expression of some proteins which suppresses the insulin-signaling pathways, thereby making the system less responsive towards insulin and thereby loosing the control over glucose metabolism. It promotes the development of type 2 diabetes. FOXO 1 increase cytokine secretion, which has been shown to be more active during insulin resistance (Garca-Lafuente et al. 2009). Avoiding sugar and saturated fat based food is the basic treatment of type two diabetes to reduce the chance of diabetes. Sulforaphane has been shown to have great response as an anti-inflammatory activity while acting against oxidative damage associated with inflammatory activities. Atherosclerosis-cardiovasculardisease Atherosclerosis is a syndrome, which affects the blood vessels as a result of chronic inflammatory responses of WBCs present in the artery walls. The process is promoted by the LDLs as a result of failure of removing fats and cholesterol by the HDLs from macrophages. The result is formation of atherosclerotic lesion in artery, which is the cause of cardiovascular accident (Kawasaki et al. 2012). The retention of LDL particles promotes initial damage to vessel walls which promote inflammatory procedure. Macrophages further ingest oxidized LDLs and turn into foam cells which propagate the inflammatory process. In the case of cardiovascular diseases, atherosclerosis is the major cause. High blood pressure, smoking, high cholesterol, all of these inflammatory phenomenon triggers cardiovascular diseases. The damage promotes inflammatory response and leads to the formation of plaque in artery. Two types of plaques are formed in the cardiovascular diseases as a result of inflammatory responses. Stable plaques in artery of heart cause chest pain and sudden rupture of plaque causes blood clot and myocardial infarction (Gentile et al. 2012). Regular exercise and cessation of smoking are basic treatment. Combined treatment strategies are best for these cases. Lipoprotein transport behaviors have been shown successful results. Mediterranean diet can improve the symptoms. Medications for reducing high cholesterol can be a good treatment along with dietary improvement. Cancer A number of inflammatory diseases increase the risk of cancer of an individual. For example, it has been found that chronic inflammatory bowel disease increases the risk of colon carcinoma. Bacterial, viral or parasitic infections or chemical irritants can cause chronic inflammation. Through the inclusion of proneoplastic mutation, apoptosis, adaptive responses the inflammatory mediators promote neoplasia (Guo et al. 2012). As much the inflammation persists, the risk of cancer increases. In this context, anti-inflammatory medications and healthy diet by avoiding inflammation-inductive foods can be helpful. 4. Components of chronic inflammation Inflammation mediators There are different chemical and biological mediators of chronic inflammation, which are important components of chronic inflammation. Cytokines are the most important agents having significant role in inflammation. The cytokines, which promote inflammation, are known as the pro-inflammatory cytokines, which involve IL-6, IL-8, IL-15, TNF-alpha. The chemical mediators of inflammation include histamine, postraglandin, bradykinin and serotonin. Histamine is one of the initial chemical mediators released from mast cells which attracts macrophages at the site of inflammation (Mathur and Pedersen 2009). Neutrophils Neutrophils are most abundant granulocytes having a major role in inflammation process. These are the first leukocytes, which are recruited to the site of inflammation. They are able to eliminate the pathogens through phagocytosis. These cells have high capacity of infiltrating in the damaged tissues. These cells have a significant role in the chronic inflammation of joint. The granules in neutrophils secrete anti-microbial substances including toxic oxygen metabolites. And drive inflammation through antigen presentation and cytokine secretion. These are found in rheumatoid joints in large amount (Guo et al. 2012). Macrophages Monocytes are one of the important white blood cells. Monocytes migrate in different tissues while differentiating into macrophages. In inflammation, the macrophages has three major roles, phagocytosis of pathogenic substances, antigen presentation to the T lymphocytes and immunomodulation by producing and secreting different cytokines and growth factors. The chemical mediators secreted by the neutrophils make the macrophages active and these macrophages can infiltrate tissues easily. Activated macrophages can destroy the pathogens by phagocytosis more vigorously (Sica and Mantovani 2012). Mechanism of macrophage activation or polarization M1, M2 and M3 polarization Macrophages play an essential role in regulation of the process of healing of wound and regeneration of tissue by changing their state of polarization in response to the stimulus of local microenvironment. The native roles of macrophages that are polarized includes the needs of tissue remodeling and biomaterials, yet directing the response of polarization has been mainly not present as a probable strategy to use in regenerative medicine up till now (Herder et al. 2015). The macrophages that are derived from the precursors of monocyte go through specific differentiation depending on the environment of local tissues. They give response to the environmental signals within then tissues such as the activated lymphocytes, microbial products and damaged cells to distinguish into functional phenotypes. The phenotype of M1 macrophage is differentiated by the production of elevated levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, capacity to mediate resistance against pathogens, high production of reacti ve intermediates of oxygen and nitrogen, strong microbial properties and promotion of responses of Th1. On the contrary, the M2 macrophages are differentiated by their involvement in the process of remodeling of tissue, parasite control, and regulation of immune system. Kappa (NF-KB) is a nuclear factor, which acts as a signaling molecule in the M1, M2 and M3 Polarization (Herder et al. 2015). 5. THP-1 cell model This model encompasses human leukemia monocytic cell line that has been widely utilized to study the mechanisms, functions, pathways of signaling and transport of drugs and nutrients involved with macrophages/monocytes. This model encompassing the cell line has become widespread for estimating the modulation of the activities of macrophages and monocytes (Qin, Z., 2012). THP-1 is a human monocytic cell line, which is derived from the patient suffering from acute monocytic leukemia. This cell line is utilized for the testing the cell lines of leukemia immunocytochemical analysis of protein-protein interaction and immunohistochemistry. These cells have C3b and Fc receptors and they are devoid of cytoplasmic and surface immunoglobulins. They are responsible for the production of IL-1 and stain positive for alpha-napthyl butyrate esterase. They exhibit increased production of carbondioxide during phagocytosis and can be distinguished into cells, which are like macrophage (Chanput et al. 2014). Strengths and Limitation In the present settings of research, THP-1 model is extensively used for the investigation of regulation and function of macrophages and monocytes in the cardiovascular system. In the studies, associated with the interaction between a variety of vascular cells and THP-1 cells, THP-1 cells offer several exceptional values like a model for investigating the mechanisms of the different stages of atherogenesis (Chanput et al. 2014). A few studies that are associated with the transcriptome, histone modification of THP-1 cells and microRNA profile, a number of molecules have been identified which may play crucial roles in regulating the macrophages and monocytes under pathological and physiological conditions. The limitation of this model is that there are noteworthy differences between the primary monocytes-macrophages and THP-1 cells and it is necessary to identify the differences between them. Moreover, both of them have diverse pathophysiological processes in programmed cell death or a poptosis (Qin, Z., 2012). Advantage and disadvantage of THP-1 cells over other cell models THP-1 cell line has some technical advantages in comparison to the other cell line models. For example, the genetic background of THP-1 cell line is homogenous leading to the minimization of the degree of variability in the phenotype of the cell. Another advantage is that the genetic modification of these cell lines by small interfering RNAs for the regulation of specific proteins is comparatively uncomplicated. The most regularly utilized read-out systems for reactions of THP-1 cells involves production of significant cytokines or transcription of the cytokines are significant and depends on the experimental designs, which are specific in nature (Chanput et al. 2015). 6. Methods of regulating chronic inflammation Chronic inflammation is usually results from the infection, which can be bacterial, viral, parasitic or fungal. Thus, the primary way to control chronic or persistent inflammation is to take precaution against infection by infection prevention methods. The primary prevention method is having a healthy diet by avoiding substances that induce inflammation. Therefore, getting control is very important (Kawasaki et al. 2012). Red meat should be avoided highly as it causes inflammation. Fries, which are rich in gluten, should be avoided as it causes chronic inflammation. Bad fat or Trans fat also have pro-inflammatory activities, refines carbohydrates, acid forming food can cause inflammation, which should be avoided. Today, most of the natural vegetables are grown by applying harmful pesticides, which are major causes of inflammation. Thus, vegetables should be washed before consumption very carefully. Candida is a major opportunistic pathogen, which causes inflammation through infection of gut. Thus, keeping a healthy gut is very important to control chronic inflammation (Chanput et al. 2015). 7. Bioactive Molecules Flavonoids and plant derived molecules Flavonoids encompass a group of phytochemicals, which have exhibited several effects of health and have been studied comprehensively (Vezza et al., 2016). They are secondary metabolites in plants and belong to the category of polyphenols. Among the six common classes of food flavonoids, the ubiquitous distribution of flavonols has been observed in different plant foods while noticeable quantities of isoflavones have been discovered in the foods that are obtained from leguminous plants (George et al. 2016). Flavonoids have exhibited promising health enhancing effects in human cell cultures, experimental human and animal clinical studies. They have exhibited hypocholesterolemic, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects together with the ability to adapt cell signaling as well as gene expression associated with the development of diseases (Haid et al. 2012). Sources and mode of action The sources of Flavonoids are fruits, vegetables and spices. They are rich in the fruits that grow on trees. Citrus fruits such as lemons, oranges and grapes contain a high amount of falavonoids (Paul Dzoyem et al. 2013). Beans such as kidney bean are high in flavonoids. Their best property is to protect the body against reactive oxygen species. They have discovered to possess antimicrobial, antiviral, anti-inflammatory and antihepatotoxic activities. They also possess biochemical effects that lead to the inhibition of a variety of enzymes such as phosphodiesterase, xanthine oxidase, aldol reductase, cycloxygenase and lipoxygenase. They also have a role in the regulation of a number of hormones such as androgens, thyroid hormone and estrogens. They also show anti-inflammatory activities in exudative as well as proliferative phases of inflammation (George et al. 2016). Anti-inflammation properties of flavonoids The anti-inflammation properties of flavonoids in cellular models engages the inhibition of the activities and synthesis of a number of pro-inflammatory mediators like adhesion molecules, cytokines, c-reactive protein and eicosanoids (Haid et al. 2012). The studies on humans which aims to investigate the effects of flavoniods on the inflammatory markers are inadequate and are primarily focused on the sources of food that are rich in flavonoids but not on the molecules that are pure. Several of the studies lack evaluation of absorption of flavonoids or fail to relate the effect off inflammation with an alteration in the circulating levels of flavonoids (Paul Dzoyem et al. 2013). Conclusion In this literature review, recent literatures have been reviewed regarding the chronic inflammation. Chronic inflammation is one of the basic steps that progress towards severe human diseases, while increasing the risk of fatal consequences including cardiovascular accident or cancer. In this literature review, the basic concept related to the chronic inflammation and how chronic inflammation is related to the severe diseases has been discussed. Recent research has been found direct relation between chronic inflammation prevention and consumption of dietary flavonoids. From different recent studies, it has been analyzed that flavonoids have anti-inflammatory activities, which could have major impact upon treatment and prevention of chronic inflammation. Thus, flavonoids can be used as prophylactic agents. The role of flavonoids has been discussed here. Further studies should focus on in-depth analysis of the natural product to establish its use in treating chronic inflammation relate d diseases. Reference List Aggarwal, B., Krishnan, S. and Guha, S., 2012.Inflammation, lifestyle, and chronic disease. Boca Raton: CRC Press. Chanput, W., Mes, J.J. and Wichers, H.J., 2014. THP-1 cell line: an in vitro cell model for immune modulation approach.International immunopharmacology,23(1), pp.37-45. Chanput, W., Peters, V. and Wichers, H., 2015. THP-1 and U937 Cells. InThe Impact of Food Bioactives on Health(pp. 147-159). 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